6 Develop a global partnership for development

Where we are?

Photo: Government of Nauru.

The collective efforts of Pacific Island countries and development partners to achieve the partnerships for development envisaged under Goal 8 are framed in the context of the Pacific Plan, the Cairns Compact, and the Pacific Principles of Aid Effectiveness and through a series of bilateral and multilateral agreements. Historically, PICs have received large flows of Official Development Assistance (ODA) when measured in per capita terms; estimated at about seven times the average for all developing countries. However the Pacific region’s share of global development assistance is declining overall.

Enhanced progress towards Goal 8, specifically towards improving the environment for private sector expansion, improved market access and growth in trade is urgently needed if rates of economic growth and employment creation are to be increased. The in-country implementation of selected components of the Regional Private Sector Development Strategy is contributing towards improving the investment environment. PICs are in the process of establishing mechanisms to implement the Pacific Island Countries Trade Agreement (PICTA), which aims to create a common market for Pacific Island countries and increase trade within the region. The Melanesian Spearhead Group Trade Agreement and the EU/ACP Cotonou Agreement, including the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPA), are also designed to promote further duty-free trade between the parties and the non-reciprocal free right of access for goods. Capacity building for trade policy is being supported under the EPA and also through the UNDP’s Integrated Framework for Trade initiative focused on the least developed countries (LDCs). In addition, PICs are considering the impending trade negotiations under the Pacific Agreement on Closer Economic Relations (PACER) with Australia and New Zealand.

One of the success areas for almost all PICs has been in the adoption of new technology for communications, both in terms of mobile phone networks but also the expansion of internet access. The installation of the Pacific Rural Internet Connectivity System (PacRICs) that commenced in 2008, which is supporting the “one-laptop-per-child programme” that is now being implemented across the region, is especially important as it provides opportunities for rural and remote outlying islands for connectivity that supports education, small business access, and health developments. Although for example, the coverage of fixed-line connections varies widely across the region, from less than 10% of the population to 81% for Kiribati, Niue, Palau, Samoa and Tonga, and has even been declining in some countries, the uptake of mobile phones has been increasing at a rapid rate. For example in Fiji in 2007 it is estimated that almost two-thirds of the population had access to a mobile phone, in Tonga the comparable figure was 50% and 25% in Samoa, with the extent of coverage increasing daily.

Closely linked with the expansion in mobile phone coverage is the opportunity for broadening the coverage of financial literacy and financial inclusion. The increasing monetization of Pacific societies means that less people can live without access to cash. Having access to cash requires an understanding of the benefits and pitfalls of having to manage cash expenditure. Putting financial literacy into schools’ curriculum is an effective way of introducing the next generation to life in a monetized society. In the past three years a pilot scheme has been successfully conducted in Samoa, and on the basis of this a new programme is being developed for Fiji. Programme design is also being undertaken for Tonga and Cook islands.

Source: 2010 MDGs Pacific Regional Tracking Report.

Targets for MDG8
  1. Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system
    • Developing countries gain greater access to the markets of developed countries
    • Least developed countries benefit most from tariff reductions, especially on their agricultural products
  2. Address the special needs of least developed countries
    • Net Official development assistance (ODA), total and to the least developed countries, as percentage of OECD/DAC donors' gross national income
    • Proportion of total bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC donors to basic social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and sanitation)
    • Proportion of bilateral official development assistance of OECD/DAC donors that is untied
    • Market access
    • Debt sustainability
  3. Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small island developing States
    • Official development assistance (ODA) received in landlocked developing countries as a proportion of their gross national income
    • ODA received in small island developing States as a proportion of their gross national incomes
    • Proportion of bilateral official development assistance of OECD/DAC donors that is untied
    • Market access
    • Debt sustainability
  4. Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries
    • Total number of countries that have reached their HIPC decision points and number that have reached their HIPC completion points (cumulative)
    • Debt relief committed under HIPC and MDRI Initiatives
    • Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services
  5. In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries
    • Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis
  6. In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications
    • Telephone lines per 100 population
    • Cellular subscribers per 100 population
    • Internet users per 100 population